From the encyclopedia "Global Studies"
(Doctor of Engineering I.I. Mazur, Doctor of Philosophy A.N. Chumakov, Russia)
GLOBALISTICS(GLOBAL STUDIES) - an interdisciplinary field of scientific research aimed at identifying the nature, trends and causes of globalization processes, global problems generated by it and finding ways to affirm the positive and overcome the negative consequences for these people and the biosphere. In a broader sense, the term is used to denote a combination of scientific, philosophical, cultural and applied research of various aspects of globalization and global problems, including the results of such studies, as well as practical activities for their implementation in the economic, social and political spheres, as at the level of individual states both internationally. Global studies should not be understood as any separate or special scientific discipline, which in a large number arises, as a rule, as a result of differentiation of scientific knowledge or at the junction of related disciplines. It was born of the opposite - integration processes characteristic of modern science, and represents a sphere of research and knowledge, where various scientific disciplines and philosophy, mostly in close interaction with each other, each from the perspective of its subject and method, analyze all kinds of aspects of globalization, offer solutions to global problems, considering them both in isolation from each other, and as a holistic system.
As an independent scientific direction and the sphere of social practice, global studies began to take shape from the end of the 60s. The twentieth century, when first in the most industrialized and then in other countries, the environmental situation sharply deteriorated, reflecting the complexity, diversity and dynamism of the modern era, its purely technocratic, scientistic nature, the inhuman essence of the rampant growth of non-environmentally friendly industrial production, unchecked by technological progress . Our planet has never before been subjected to such overloads, and man has never come into such contradictions with the results of his work, which made him extremely dependent on scientific and technological achievements and not protected against the power that he himself created. Behind the unprecedented pollution of the environment that has opened up to mankind, threatening tendencies of population growth, an arms race, the exhaustion of natural resources, etc., have also been revealed, which have indicated a serious danger to the progressive social development and even the existence of life on Earth. The active formation of globalism was also influenced noticeably by the fact that the imbalance in relations between society and nature, which had reached the maximum permissible values by that time, as well as the fragmentation and fragmentation of mankind in the face of global problems, became obvious not only for specialists, but also at the level of mass consciousness . As a result, the concepts of “ecology”, “ecological crisis”, “global problems of our time”, “globalization”, “antiglobalism” and others became widespread, entered into scientific life and quickly replenished the vocabulary of almost all the languages of the world. They became an integral part of everyday consciousness, a political vocabulary, an attribute of the worldview of modern man. Since then, from year to year, the number of publications, scientific conferences, and discussions devoted to these topics has been increasing all over the world, and the results of such activities have attracted increasing scientific and public resonance.
The understanding of global problems, as well as the causes and processes that gave rise to them, was greatly facilitated by the appearance, beginning in the second half of the 60s. XX century., Special organizations (international, state, non-governmental, private), such as the “Institute for the Future”, which was created in Vienna in 1965, or the international fund “Humanity in 2000”, founded at the same time in the Netherlands . In 1966, the Society for the Study of the Future World appeared in Washington. Such organizations over time became more and more. However, a genuine interest in global issues appeared after the first reports of the Club of Rome founded in 1968 - “The Limits of Growth” (1972), “Humanity at the Crossroads” (1974), “Revision of the International Order” (1974), “Beyond the Century of Wastes” (1976) et al. (See Reports to the Club of Rome). These studies very quickly gained worldwide fame and became the theoretical basis of modern global studies, having performed not only the necessary heuristic and methodological function in the formation of a fundamentally new field of interdisciplinary knowledge, but also played an important educational role.
Thanks to global studies, the ideas about the trends in the formation of world economic relations as a single system and the global problems that it has generated have expanded significantly in recent years and become deeper. The nature and genesis of global problems are revealed, the deep interrelation of not only natural and social processes, but also the contradictions resulting from them, their conditionality by social, economic, political, ideological and scientific and technical circumstances is revealed. The most important achievement of global studies was the formation and development of an interdisciplinary communication language acceptable for various sciences, the development and refinement from this point of view of key, fundamental concepts and categories, such as “globalization”, “global problem”, “environmental crisis”, and “greening production” , “Population explosion”, “global dependence”, “world community”, “new thinking”, “new humanism”, etc. As a result, the worldview of people has also undergone significant changes, their understanding that a person to a much greater extent than was previously recognized depends on nature, on the earth and space environment surrounding it, as well as on emerging relationships and the distribution of forces on the world stage. It became apparent that the interdependence of all spheres of public life in the world is steadily increasing, in particular, the influence of different states on each other is increasing, which, defending their own, purely national interests and sovereignty, in the context of globalization, give rise to fundamentally new contradictions in international relations.
From the point of view of modern global studies, the emergence of global problems in our time is not the result of some miscalculation, someone’s fatal mistake or an intentionally chosen strategy for socio-economic development. This is not the quirks of history or the result of natural anomalies. Global changes and the human problems that ensued were the result of centuries-old quantitative and qualitative transformations both in social development and in the society – nature system. The reasons for their appearance go back to the history of the formation of modern civilization, which gave rise to an extensive crisis of industrial society, a technocratically oriented culture as a whole. This crisis embraced the whole complex of interaction between people with each other, with society, with nature and affected the vital interests of the entire world community. The result of this development was, first of all, the degradation of the human environment, which very quickly revealed a tendency to degradation of the person himself, as his behavior, ideas and way of thinking were not able to change in a timely manner adequately to the changes that began to occur around him with increasing speed. The reason for the accelerated development of socio-economic processes was the man himself and his purposeful transformative activity, repeatedly reinforced by newer and newer achievements in the field of science and technology.
Only in recent decades, as a result of the rapid growth of scientific and technological achievements in the development of the productive forces of society, there have been more changes than during many previous centuries. At the same time, the process of change was taking place with increasing speed and was invariably accompanied by deeper and more thorough transformations in the socio-economic spheres. So, if mankind went from verbal communication to writing for about 3 million years, from writing to printing - about 5 thousand years, from printing to such audiovisual means as telephone, radio, sound recording, television, etc. - about 500 years, it took less than 50 years to transition from traditional audiovisual means to modern computers and space communications. Even shorter periods from new inventions to their practical implementation have now become, they are now often measured not for years, but for months and even days. Confirmation of this is the unprecedented in speed and scale distribution of the Internet, email, radiotelephone. It should also be taken into account that technology, economics, land and sea transport have tremendously increased mobility and the transformative capabilities of man. At the same scale, world trade and the interdependence of the world economy have grown, which are closely associated with an unprecedented increase in population. So, if at the beginning of our era all mankind numbered no more than 250 million people, and it reached the 1 billion mark only by 1800, then in 1930 there were already 2 billion people on Earth, in 1975 - 4 billion, and in October 1999 - 6 billion people. As a result, on the Earth there are now not only places not yet known to man, but practically no clean territories, water and air spaces, whose natural state would not be directly or indirectly affected by human activity. All this gave grounds to call our planet “a common home”, “an island in the Universe”, “a world village”, “the spaceship Earth”, etc., and the problems that turned out to be common for all people are global.
Some trends in the formation of a holistic world and the changes taking place in it were in the focus of attention of scientists and philosophers somewhat earlier than these changes became obvious to everyone. The first attempts to comprehend emerging global trends and the fundamentally new, universal human problems caused by them include T. Malthus’s ideas on the natural regulation of the population, I. Kant’s discussion of “eternal peace,” Lamarck’s thoughts on the role of man, and K. Marx’s universalist views and F. Engels, expounded by them in the “Manifesto of the Communist Party” and a number of other works. The First International, created on their initiative in 1864, became the forerunner of many international organizations that began to emerge in an increasing number from the beginning of the 20th century. and now they are already an integral part of the modern life of the world community. In theory, an important role in understanding global trends, when they were not so obvious, was played by V.S. Soloviev, E. Leroy, P. Teilhard de Chardin, V.I. Vernadsky, A.L. Chizhevsky, K.E. Tsiolkovsky, K. Jaspers, B. Russell and others. First of all, these thinkers were preoccupied with fundamentally new trends that upset the natural balance of natural and social systems, and tried to give them an explanation based on the knowledge available to their time. With his works and discussions about the “population of the Earth”, “eternal peace”, “world unification of the proletariat”, “united God-manhood”, “noosphere”, “world government”, “cosmopolitanism”, etc. they prepared a philosophical, scientific and broad public consciousness for understanding that humanity as a whole, inextricably linked with the natural conditions of its existence - nature, space, - has a common destiny.
So, V.I. Vernadsky, who developed the concept of the noosphere, already in the 1930s. He made a fundamental conclusion about the modification of the Earth’s appearance due to the modern scale of the transformative activity of mankind and warned that if society does not develop on a reasonable basis, in accordance with the natural laws of nature, then the death of all life on Earth is inevitable. “Man really understood for the first time,” he wrote in “Scientific Thought as a Planetary Phenomenon,” that he is a resident of the planet and can - must - think and act in a new aspect, not only in the aspect of an individual person, family or clan, states or their unions, but also in the planetary aspect ”(Vernadsky VI. Philosophical thoughts of a naturalist. M., 1988. S. 35). The English historian A. Toynbee, who considered social development as the coexistence and interaction of various civilizations, even before the computer revolution, argued that "in the twentieth century began a universal world history." Thus, it was emphasized that cardinal changes affected not only the foundations of the social structure, but also the main trends in world social processes. To the eternal philosophical problems of being, consciousness, the meaning of life, and others, the modern era has thus added a fundamentally new, never-existing theme - the unified fate of humanity and the preservation of life on Earth.
In recent years, a new trend has emerged in global studies, showing that the attention of scientists, researchers and even politicians is increasingly shifting from individual global problems to globalization processes and the growing interdependence of the modern world. The reason for this is the almost not satisfactory almost thirty years of experience in understanding and overcoming certain global problems and the desire to find out the fundamental reasons for their appearance and increasing severity. This trend is characteristic both for specific scientific disciplines and for philosophy. In particular, at the last three World Philosophical Congresses held in Brighton (1988), Moscow (1993) and Boston (1998), although globalization was not directly discussed, sections and round tables devoted to global problems invariably were. The term “globalization” came into scientific use in the mid-1990s. and quickly became widespread. Nevertheless, it is still not strictly defined, and its content remains the subject of active discussion. They became especially acute in the last 3-4 years, when the international movement of anti-globalists appeared in various countries and declared itself extravagant protests.
In modern global studies, the term “globalization” is used, as a rule, to describe integration and disintegration processes of a planetary scale in the field of economics, politics, culture, as well as anthropogenic environmental changes that are universal in form and affect the interests of the entire world community in content . At the same time, two extremes can be noted in understanding both the very phenomenon of globalization and the history of its appearance. One of them is that the planetary nature of social ties and relationships is interpreted unlawfully broadly, trying to discern them in a primitive society, and from this point of view even characterize the early stages of human development as global. The other extreme is that globalization is understood too narrowly when modern processes of social development are considered in isolation from their genesis, i.e. the history and dynamics of the formation of international structures and transnational ties are not taken into account. Such a scatter of opinions and a difference of views on globalization are explained not only by the complexity of the problem, but also by the insufficient development of this topic. As a result, mutual understanding between people is hindered, interdisciplinary interaction is hindered, serious obstacles are created in the way of understanding the true causes of globalization and the global contradictions generated by it. Here are the causes of many conflicts, due to the fact that the world is becoming more and more united, integral, interconnected, while mechanisms designed to regulate social relations at the global level (world government, world state, combined forces to maintain international order, etc.) n.), are absent. It is quite obvious that without a deep analysis and a sufficiently clear understanding of the modern processes of globalization, it is difficult to count on the successful overcoming of the above problems.
The key role in solving these problems is played by science and philosophy - the fundamental components of global studies, which is represented by a variety of schools, directions, various associations, creative teams, groups of scientists, etc. The complex nature of the object of study and the inevitable interdisciplinarity in this case greatly complicate the establishment of clear boundaries for the subject of scientific analysis, because they often merge with other areas of knowledge: futurology, cultural studies, and philosophy.
Like other areas of scientific knowledge affecting social processes, global studies often turn out to be closely connected with the socio-economic structure, politics, and ideology. Given this circumstance, we can talk about the various directions and trends of global studies. So, since the late 1960s. until the early 1990s the formation and formation of this field of knowledge took place in conditions of confrontation between two ideologically hostile socio-economic systems, which predetermined its development in two directions, one of which was called “western”, the other - “Soviet globalism”. Over the past decade, ideological confrontation has given way to economic, cultural, religious, and national disagreements, which have become the basis for dividing the world into a number of large regions - unique subjects of international relations, and cultural and civilizational differences in understanding the trends and contradictions of the modern world have come to the fore. This gives reason, as before, to distinguish in global studies, but for other reasons, different approaches to understanding modern world processes, in particular, Western, Eurasian, Eastern, Islamic, etc. Among the many such approaches, we single out the most common and most common in literature.
So, in Western globalism, two wings were initially most distinctly manifested: the “technocratic” and the “techno-pessimistic”. Subsequently, their positions became closer and, at the same time, adjusted differently under the influence of various assessments of the prospects for the development of the world market, and therefore this division can now be adopted very conditionally. Representatives of the first of them, in resolving global contradictions, emphasize the wide possibilities of science and technology, attach importance to scientific and technological progress, emphasize its importance and impact on society (T. Veblen, G. Kahn, W. Brown, D. Bell, A Toffler, A. Turen, A. Schaff, G. Friedrichs, A. Wiener, G. Scott, D. Nesbit, E. Weizsacker, L. Lovins and others). “Technopessimists” blame the negative consequences of globalization and exacerbate global problems for scientific and technological progress, large international capital, transnational corporations (G. Markuse, D. Meadows, K. Boulding, T. Rozak, P. Goodman, M. Roberts , K. Davis, A. Ehrlich, W. Beck, as well as numerous representatives of the “new left”, “green”, “anti-globalists”, etc.).
In Russia, science and philosophy are represented in global studies in a number of areas:
1. Philosophical and methodological - in its framework, the philosophical foundations, essence, genesis of global processes are studied, the most important socio-political and economic transformations necessary to successfully solve the problems arising from this are analyzed (works by V.I. Vernadsky, I.T. Frolov, N.N. Moiseeva, V.A. Engelhardt, P.L. Kapitsa, E.K. Fedorova, N.N. Inozemtseva, D.M. Gvishiani, V.S. Stepina, V.V. Zagladina, G. S. Khozina, I. B. Novik, I.V. Bestuzhev-Lada, A.S. Panarin, A.V. Katsura, A.I. Utkin and others).
2. The social-natural direction in global studies covers a wide range of problems, of which the most concern and concern are the environment, the availability of raw materials, energy, water, land and other resources. In this field of research, representatives of the natural, technical, social sciences, politicians, industrialists, and public figures work closely. Their efforts are aimed at developing principles and methods for optimizing the interaction between society and nature, greening production and rational nature management (A.L. Yanshin, N.F. Reimers, M.M. Kamshilov, G.V. Dobrovolsky, M.I. Budyko, V.A. Kovda, Yu.A. Izrael, A.S. Isaev, M.G. Khublaryan, V.I. Danilov-Danilyan, I.I. Mazur, V.V. Snakin, E.V. Girusov, A.D. Ursul et al.).
3. Cultural direction, in the center of which are the problems of globalization that arise in the field of scientific and technological progress, population, health, culture, law, education and other areas of public life (N. A. Agadzhanyan, S. P. Kapitsa, N. S. Kasimov, G.S. Gudozhnik, E.A. Arab-Ogly, V.V. Petrov, B.Ts. Urlanis, N.M. Mamedov, etc.).
Understanding global trends and fundamentally overcoming the problems they generate requires not only theoretical research, but also effective practical action. Global studies, therefore, objectively plays an integrating role, forcing many scientists to take a fresh look at the modern world and realize their involvement in the common destiny of mankind. This is evidenced by the results of the World Philosophical Congresses (Brighton, 1988; Moscow, 1993; Boston, 1998), and in particular the latter - by the 21st (Istanbul, 2003), the main theme of which is “Philosophy facing world problems”. In the modern world, among scientists of various directions, there is growing interest in the processes of globalization and concern for universal problems, for professional understanding and the search for practical ways to overcome them. Global trends and problems do not leave humanity any choice but to overcome fragmentation and disagreement, go towards unity, integration, while preserving the identity of cultures, centuries-old traditions and unique features of individual nations and peoples. Such unity and coordination of actions can provide an adequate understanding of the processes and events taking place in the modern world, the knowledge of which is developed and formulated in modern global studies. See also Global studies in the USSR, Western global studies, Global problems of our time, Globalization.
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