The most remarkable results in the field of global studies have been achieved in Western countries and in Russia.

Globalistics in the West

Initially, there were two distinct schools of thought in the Western globalistics:

    "technocratic"

    "technopessimistic"


Subsequently, their positions converged and now the division mentioned above is  rather relative.

Technocrats emphasize the broad possibilities of science and technology in solving global contradictions, as well as that, they pin special hopes on scientific and technological progress and highlight its great importance in social life and its impact on it. (Thorstein Veblen, Herman Kahn, Daniel Bell, Alvin Toffler, Alain Touraine, Adam Schaff, Günter Friedrichs, Norbert Wiener, Howard Scott, John Naisbitt, Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker, Hunter Lovins, Roland Robertson etc.).

Technopessimists‘ blame scientific and technological progress, international capital flows and transnational corporations for the adverse consequences of globalization and intensification of global problems (Herbert Marcuse, Dennis Meadows, Anthony Giddens, Kenneth Boulding, Thomas Friedman, Theodore Roszak, Paul Goodman, Michael Roberts, Ulrich Beck, as well as many of those representing the "new left", "green", "anti-globalization" movements etc.).

Global studies in Russia

In Russia, global studies are represented by several intellectual traditions, which, with a certain degree of conditionality, can be divided into:

1. "Philosophical-methodological and scientific-theoretical". It examines the philosophical foundations, essence and genesis of global processes and analyses the most important socio-political and economic transformations necessary for the successful solution of global problems and the underlying processes. Within its framework the works of such autors as Vladimir I. Vernadsky, Ivan Frolov, Nikita Moiseyev, Vladimir Engelgardt, Pyotr Kapitsa, Yevgeny Konstantinovich Fyodorov, Nikolay Inozemtsev, Dzhermen Gvishiani, Vadim Zagladin, Grigory Sergeevich Khozin, I.B. Novik, Igor Bestuzhev-Lada, Yu.V. Shishkov, Alexander Panarin etc. gained wide popularity and importance.

2. "Socio-natural" direction of globalistics covers a wide range of problems, among which environmental degradation, the provision of raw materials, energy, water, land and other resources are the problems of the greatest concern. Within this direction, experts in natural and technical areas, social sciences, politicians, industrial workers and public figures are working in close contact. Their efforts are intended to develop principles and methods for optimizing the interaction between society and nature, environmentally-friendly production and rational use of natural resources (Alexander Yanshin, Nikolay Reimers, Gleb Vsevolodovich Dobrovolsky, Mikhail Budyko, Victor Abramovich Kovda, Yuri Izrael, Alexander Sergeevich Isaev, Victor Danilov-Danilyan, Ivan Mazur, Valery Viktorovich Snakin, Eduard Girusov, Arkady Dmitrievich Ursul, Victor Alexandrovich Los, Nizami Mustafayevich Mamedov etc.).

3. "Culturological", where the problems of globalization arising in the field of scientific and technological progress, population, health care, culture, law, education and in other areas of public life are in focus (Sergey Kapitsa, Nikolay Sergeevich Kasimov, Grigory Sergeevich Gudozhnik, Edward Arturovich Arab-Ogly, Vladislav Vasilievich Petrov, Boris Tsezarevich Urlanis, Alexander Vladimirovich Katsura etc.).

In recent years, a new trend has emerged in global studies,

that shows that the focus of attention in science, research

and even politicy-making is increasingly shifting away from

the individual global problems towards the processes of

globalization and the growing interdependence of the

modern world. This is demonstrated, in particular, by the

growth of publications on this subject, for instance, in such

specialized journals as:

„The Age of Globalization“;

„Moscow University Bulletin. Series 27. Global Studies and


The following self-titled reference publications, which were prepared by a large team of scientists and specialists from more than 50 countries of the world, played a specific role in the development and popularization of globalistics:

    Глобалистика: Энциклопедия / Гл. ред. И.И. Мазур, А.Н. Чумаков; Центр научных и прикладных программ «Диалог». – М.: ОАО Издательство «Радуга», 2003.

    Глобалистика: Международный, междисциплинарный, энциклопедический словарь. / Гл. ред. И.И. Мазур, А.Н.Чумаков. – М.-СПб.-Нью-Йорк: Элима, Питер, 2006.

    Глобалистика. Персоналии, организации, труды. Энциклопедический справочник / Гл. ред.: И.В. Ильин, И.И. Мазур, А.Н. Чумаков. - М.: «Альфа-М». 2012. (Переиздание  - М.: «Кнорус», 2016.).

    Global Studies Encyclopedic Dictionary. Edited by Alexander N. Chumakov, Ivan I. Mazour and William C. Gay. With a Foreword by Mikhail Gorbachev. Editions Rodopi B.V., Amsterdam/New York, NY, 2014. XI, 531 pp.

    Global Studies Directory. People, Organizations, Publications. Edited by Alexander N. Chumakov, Ilya V. Ilyin  and Ivan I. Mazour. Editions Brill / Rodopi,  Leiden/Boston, 2017, 720 pp.

    Encyclopedia of Global Studies / Editors Helmut K. Anheier, Mark Juergensmeyer. –SAGE Publications, Inc. California, USA, 2012. - 2072 p.