GLOSSARY (BASIC TERMS AND CONCEPTS OF GLOBAL STUDIES\GLOBALISTICS)
Absorption - the process of absorption of substances from solutions or gases by solids or liquids.
Area (lat. Area - area space) - the area of distribution on the earth's surface of a phenomenon; in this study of one or another type of cultural-civilizational system.
Alarmism - a feeling of anxiety, threat, danger.
The biosociosphere - the space of the Earth, covering all areas of the spread of life and including absolutely all forms of its manifestation.
Vital (lat. Vitalis - vital) - related to the manifestation of life; characteristic of living processes.
War - an active confrontation, the confrontation of hostile forces using violent acts or other forms of coercion, pressure in order to achieve complete domination of the enemy and to overthrow him as an opposing force. From this point of view, a war can be not only an armed conflict, but also, for example, economic, commercial, diplomatic, ideological, psychological, informational, etc. Depending on the nature of the hostilities, as well as the involvement of the warring parties in the conflict, they are internal (civilian) and external, and in terms of the scale of events - local, regional, global.
Genesis - origin, history of origin.
Geobiosociogenesis - a development process, the evolution of a geobiosociosystem.
The geobiosociosphere - an area of interaction between the main and derivative components of a conglomerate, consisting of a geographical, biological and social environment.
Geographical determinism (from Greek Geographia - description of the Earth and Latin determino - I define) - a worldview position, as well as a direction in science and philosophy, whose proponents absolutize the influence of geographical conditions on the life and work of people, declaring the geographical environment a determining factor in social development.
Geocivilization (Greek ge - Earth) is a term denoting the scientific and technological potential, urbanization and the totality of all kinds of relations within the world community, considered as a single planetary system. Often used as a synonym for the concept of "global civilization." In the literature, it is sometimes mistakenly used to refer to all kinds of local, regional civilizations when they are considered autonomously from each other.
Hypercivilization (Greek hyper - above, above, beyond) is a term denoting a civilization spanning a vast region or several regions.
Global studies - an interdisciplinary field of scientific research aimed at identifying the nature, trends and causes of globalization processes, global problems generated by it and finding ways to affirm the positive and overcome the negative consequences for these people and the biosphere. In a broader sense, the term is used to denote a combination of scientific, philosophical, cultural and applied research of various aspects of globalization and global problems, including the results of such studies, as well as practical activities for their implementation in the economic, social and political spheres, as at the level of individual states both internationally.
Global civilization - a phrase that connects the idea of civilization as a phenomenon that has a global, planetary character, i.e. covering the entire globe - the globe.
Global modeling - the creation of theoretical constructions that describe various parameters of world processes, which allows you to see the dynamics, development trends and future conditions of the studied objects.
Global - covering the entire globe, i.e. spreading its influence (impact) on the entire planet Earth; conceivable synthetically (not divided) according to the entire planet as a whole.
Globalization - the process of universalization, the formation of structures, ties and relationships common to the entire planet Earth in various spheres of public life.
Globalism -a concept that characterizes the integrity of the world, as well as a worldview, type of consciousness, a way of seeing the world around, when the global component is dominant.
Global studies - an interdisciplinary field of scientific knowledge formed at the “junction” of philosophy, natural, technical and humanitarian sciences, as well as a combination of practical actions (government decisions, political actions, social movements, etc.) focused on the analysis and resolution of contradictions of a universal nature .
Global culture - a phrase through which we indicate the cultural component of the entire planet as a whole. It is completely legitimate to use this concept as a synonym for the concept of "world culture."
Global ecology - a term that characterizes the ecological state of the entire planet. In a more precise sense, it has two most common meanings:
1) global ecology as a biological discipline that studies the totality of living organisms of the entire planet in interaction with the world around them, as a discipline that studies the entire biosphere as a whole from the point of view of its productive, adaptive, recreational and other features;
2) global ecology as an area of scientific knowledge in which the issues of interaction between society and the environment are studied, which can more accurately be expressed by the concept of “social ecology”. In other words, this is a special section of knowledge about the biosphere, transformed by the person included in it, and about human himself, as the main component of the biosphere.
Global consciousness -
1) worldview and understanding of the world, according to which universal human interests and values come to the fore in assessing fundamental, especially significant events.
2) The ability to think in terms of planetary proportions, to realize personal involvement in world affairs and processes.
Globality - a state, property, quality, distinctive feature inherent in a particular process, phenomenon, event and showing its planetary significance.
Global problems - difficulties, dangers, threats that manifest themselves in each region of the planet and are fundamentally important for various forms of life on Earth. The term is similar in meaning to the concept of “universal problems”, but unlike the latter, it focuses on the territorial (geographical) aspect of the problem.
Global evolutionism - an internally consistent, progressive development of a geo-bio-socio-system.
Globophobia - a worldview position, mood, in accordance with which human behavior is characterized by rejection of everything connected with globalization.
Globe - (Latin globus - ball) - a cartographic image on the surface of a ball of contours and the ratio of the areas of certain celestial bodies. The geographic globe (from the Greek
“Ge” - Earth) displays the surface of the Earth, the lunar - the surface of the moon, etc. Conventional, often used meaning - the globe, the planet "Earth".
Glocalization - a synthetic term formed by combining the words “globalization” and “localization”. The use of this concept allows us to reflect the complex process of intertwining global trends in social development and local, local features of the development of the culture of various peoples, when global and local are not excluded, but complement each other.
A single civilization - a phrase that characterizes a complexly organized social system that is uniformly covered by civilizational ties and relationships that form a very definite integrity. In this sense, this concept is often used to denote civilizational signs related to the entire planet, and then it becomes a synonym for the concepts of “global civilization”, “geocivilization”, “universal human civilization”.
To close - to come to its logical end in a particular aspect of movement, development, when a given process can no longer go further by virtue of its exhaustion, completeness. It is used in the sense that it closes, for example, the line of the circle, and then we say "the circle is closed." It is in this context that the term “the world is closed” used in global studies should be understood.
The “golden” billion - an allegory used to denote the most prosperous part of humanity, living mainly in highly developed countries and having everything necessary for a secure and comfortable life.
Hierarchy - the order of submission, location at different levels of significance.
Integrative (Latin “integer” - whole) - related to a particular integrity; characterizing the process of combining any parts, elements into a single whole.
The information revolution - a qualitatively new stage in the development of scientific and technological progress, when information becomes the most important resource.
The information society - a qualitative characteristic of a social organism that is distinguished by a high degree of dissemination of all kinds of information, primarily through mass media, electronic and space communications, copy and copying equipment, etc.
Quasicivilization - (Latin “quasi” - as if) an imaginary, fake civilization, which in fact is usually anyway cultural and civilizational system or ecumenical society.
Classification - a distribution of the corresponding set into groups, classes, categories, levels, hierarchies, when the initial elements of this set are located in a certain order relative to each other depending on the initially selected division criterion, which is set in turn depending on the goals and objectives of the study. To classify something means to show the interconnectedness and interdependence of elements of a given set arranged in a certain order.
Consumerism - irrepressible thirst for consumption.
Cosmism - a worldview position according to which a person, his past, present and future are viewed through the prism of correlation with the cosmos.
The space era - a stage in the development of mankind, when human began to explore space and space objects in real time, making them not only the subject of theoretical study, but also the sphere of practical action.
Cosmogenesis - the evolutionary development of space processes; concept characterizing the problems of the development of the universe.
Co-evolution - a joint development of the system and its elements, in which any activity or life activity of the individual elements as a whole does not violate the system development process, and the system, in turn, provides the necessary conditions for the balanced development of its elements.
A crisis - the level, degree of development of a problem, when it reaches such proportions that it comes to the fore, pushing aside, eclipsing other problems, and its negative (undesirable) consequences become irreversible. For example, political, economic, environmental, etc. crises.
Culture (lat. Cultura - cultivation, upbringing, education) - a combination of customs, traditions, beliefs, values, ethical standards, etc., that make up the spiritual basis of human life; the creative activity of people in all spheres of life, aimed at understanding and transforming reality, as well as the spiritual and material results of such activities.
Cultural and civilizational - related to a particular social system, a certain community of people, characterized as a single whole at the same time on two sides - on the part of its cultural affiliation and involvement in civilizational processes.
The local problem (lat. Localis - local) - an urgent issue, task, difficulty, which manifests itself in a particular place and does not go beyond the borders of a particular country, or which remains relevant in a limited territory of a rather large state.
Local culture - a concept that characterizes the way of life, as well as all spheres of life of a particular community living in a limited territory and acting as a specific social system.
Local civilization (lat.localis - local) - a phrase used to denote a particular social system considered in the context of its civilizational development, when the size of such system does not go beyond the borders of a single country or a limited territory in which various ethnic groups associate common destiny, culture, economy, politics, etc.
Macro-civilization (Megacivilization) (Greek macros - large, long; megas - large) - a term used to refer to a civilization that spans at least several countries or the entire planet. In the latter case, this concept becomes synonymous with such concepts as “geocivilization”, “global civilization”, “world civilization”.
Mass culture - a phrase that characterizes the modern stage of the development of culture, when it became an industrial-commercial form of production and distribution through the media and communication of standardized and unified spiritual and material goods.
Material culture - a set of objects and objects created by man as a result of his creative activity, including this activity itself; all modified and transformed by man natural nature, also called "second nature."
The metasystem (gr. Meta - after, for) - a certain set of elements in their interconnection and interaction, which, in turn, serves to study and describe other systems.
The world - if there is no special reservation, then in this study, this capacious and multi-valued term denotes humanity as a whole, the entire population of the Earth included in the biosphere as its constituent part.
World culture - a phrase that extends the semantic meaning of the concept of “culture” to the whole society, taken as a single whole on a planetary scale. The totality of the material and spiritual achievements of all mankind.
World civilization - a phrase that emphasizes the fact that civilization has spread to the whole world. The concept of "peace" is used here in the meaning of "planet Earth as a whole." Used as a synonym for the concept of "global civilization."
World problems - difficulties, dangers, threats relating to the entire world community and negatively affecting the living conditions on Earth. The term is similar in meaning to the concepts of “global problems”, “universal problems”, but, in contrast to them, does not focus separately on the scale or social aspects of the contradictions, but involves considering them in a complex, synthetic way.
Multifaceted globalization - such a stage in the process of the formation of universal ties, when they begin to cover, in addition to the problems of the interaction of nature and society, also practically all the basic aspects of social life, from the economy to the spiritual sphere, including culture, education, language, ideology, ideological, value orientations, etc. Which, together with the main attributes of global civilization: mass media, the Internet, world economic, political, financial ties, etc. Most clearly express the essence of modern globalization.
Multiculturalism (lat. Multum - many) - the theory, politics and practice of coexistence in the same social space of different (usually a significant number) of diverse cultural communities. In the specialized literature, this term is often used to refer not only to recognition of equal rights and cultural diversity, but to such a policy that encourages the growing diversity of cultures, strengthens their autonomy and self-sufficiency.
The guiding culture - a phrase that, under the conditions of active intercultural interaction of two or more cultural traditions, designates the dominant culture, acting as the leading one, setting the tone and main vector of cultural development. Such, for example, are the cultures of European national states in relation to the cultures brought into these countries by emigrants, immigrants from other countries.
Science - a form of social consciousness and the sphere of human activity, where objective knowledge about the world is developed and theoretically systematized. Based on the laws it opens fundamental principles and accumulated knowledge, science describes, explains and predicts all kinds of states, processes, and phenomena of reality.
The scientific and technological revolution - a special stage in the development of scientific and technological progress, characterized by a rapid change in technology and technology, when science becomes a direct productive force.
Scientific and technological progress - such a progressive development of science and technology when they find themselves in direct interconnection and can no longer exist without each other.
National culture - a set of norms, rules, customs, traditions, beliefs, etc., as well as spiritual and material achievements of a particular nation.
The national problem - an unresolved issue that worries a particular nation and requires its solution.
The noosphere - a hypothetical stage in the development of the biosphere, at which any transformative activity of a person will have to be based on a scientific understanding of natural and social processes and organically consistent with the general laws of the development of nature.
The socio-economic formation - a historically defined stage, a period in the development of society, characterized by its inherent productive forces and production relations.
Universal human culture - a phrase denoting universal features and all that is common that is characteristic of all national, local, private, etc. cultures, when these common components are thought of as a whole. It is often used as a synonym for the concept of “world culture”, which is not entirely correct.
Human civilization - a phrase indicating the fact of the involvement of all mankind in civilizational ties and relations. Used as a synonym for the concept of "world civilization."
Universal human problems - difficulties, dangers, threats, urgent tasks facing all of humanity as a whole, affecting the interests of all the inhabitants of the planet, the solution of which requires the efforts of at least the vast majority of humanity. The term is similar in meaning to the concept of “global problems”, but is used when it is necessary to shade not the geographical scale, but the socio-political aspect of the problem.
Universal values - the norms and principles of life, reflecting the vital interests of the human community and perceived as universally valid for all people on the planet, as well as objects of nature, the results of material and spiritual activities of man, the uniqueness and universal value of which is recognized throughout the world.
Oikumena (gr. Oikumenё - inhabit) - a set of territories on the earth's surface, which, according to the ideas of the ancient Greeks, were inhabited by humans; inhabited land, space inhabited by people; unit of division, spatial delimitation of the world community on a global scale as a holistic system. This is the largest territorial fragment of the planet, which includes, as a rule, several regions; the largest fractional unit of geographical space, after which the entire surface of the globe as a whole is conceived, i.e. the next level is global.
Axial time - a historically short period of time during which the fundamental characteristics of social life change.
Comprehension - the process and result of awareness, disclosure of the meaning of a particular phenomenon, event, etc.
Awareness - the disclosure at the level of consciousness of what had not previously attracted thought was not an object of attention; for the first time a clearly and clearly formulated idea of a previously
Discovery - the discovery of previously unseen facts, phenomena, trends, symptoms, etc., as well as the establishment of their essence, genesis and development dynamics.
Parallel cultures - a phrase indicating the presence of two or more cultures that coexist within the same sociosystem, and preserve, even in conditions of active interaction, their identity and relative autonomy.
Primitive culture - the entire material and spiritual heritage of man, relating to a long period of historical development, starting from his appearance as a homo sapiens (skilled man) to the Neolithic revolution.
Polyvariance (lat. Poly - many; variantis - changing) - the manifestation (ability to manifest) of one or another material, ideal, graphic, etc. An object or process in various forms and conditions.
The problem (from the Greek. Problёma - task, task, difficulty, obstacle) is a theoretical or practical issue that causes concern and requires resolution, overcoming, studying, research. For example, an environmental problem, a global problem, etc .; in science - a controversial task or a controversial situation, characterized by its ambiguity in explaining any phenomena, objects, processes and acting in the form of diverging, opposing positions of individual scientists or scientific communities, offering different theories and approaches to resolve this situation.
Progress - a type of upward development, forward movement, characterized by a transition from simpler to more complex forms, from lower to higher, from less perfect to more perfect. The transition to a higher stage of development, accompanied by the approval of a new, advanced, more advanced and effective.
A breakthrough - a rapid transition to a new area of reality, a different sphere of creativity, research, cognition, etc., as a result of which fundamentally new opportunities arise, a different vision of familiar problems opens up prospects that did not exist before.
Region (lat. Regio - region) - 1) a space limited by physical-geographical, administrative or any other boundaries; 2)a large territorial entity covering several countries or a significant administrative part of one country, differing from other territories in the totality of natural and (or) historically developed, relatively stable economic, geographical and other features, often combined with the characteristics of the national composition of the population; 3) The totality of countries representing a separate economic and geographical, or close in national composition and culture, or the same region of the world in the same political and social order; 4) a large part of the oceans, for example, the Pacific region.
Regional culture - a generalizing concept through which they point to the totality of the spiritual and material components of the life of people living in a fairly large territory, covering, as a rule, several countries, or even whole continents.
Regional problems (lat. Regionalis - regional) - a range of pressing issues, tasks, difficulties that arise in the framework of individual continents, large socio-economic regions of the world, or in fairly large states.
Regional civilization (lat. Regionalis - regional) - a phrase denoting a certain social system, which is considered from the point of view of its civilizational development within individual continents, large socio-economic regions of the world, or in fairly large states. The consideration of civilizational ties and relations, in this case, essentially does not go beyond the boundaries of individual regions, and their solution is within the capabilities and competence of a state or group of states belonging to this region.
Regress - a type of development opposite to progress, characterized by a transition from more perfect forms and states to less perfect, a decline in the development of something, a change for the worse, a movement backward. Degradation, loss of ability to perform certain functions, return to the overcome, the old, the obsolete.
Reconstruction (historical) - restoration in the form of theories and ideas of real events that took place in the past; their description, interpretation and assessment.
Symptoms of globalization - he first, sometimes subtle and not always obvious signs of the formation of universal (global, global) ties and relationships.
System (gr. Systёma - whole; composed of parts) - a combination of ordered and interconnected different parts of a single whole; a certain set of elements that are naturally connected with each other (objects, phenomena, knowledge, views, ideas, etc.).
Systematization - the ordering of the elements of a given set, performed, for the most part, arbitrarily, without observing any strict rules and predefined norms and principles; systematization is usually aimed at giving a certain form, structure to what initially appears as a simple disordered "mass", the sum of some things, phenomena, concepts, etc.
Modern civilization - a phrase used to characterize the currently existing civilizations. Often, through this concept, they emphasize the current level of civilizational development regarding humanity as a whole.
The sociosphere - the area of distribution of public life; terrestrial space within which the life and activity of people flows.
Technique - a set of means, devices, mechanisms created to enhance the physical and intellectual abilities of a person, realized in his transformative and creative activities. In the literal sense of the word - machines, mechanisms, devices, appliances, devices, tools in a particular industry, etc.
Technogenic catastrophe - (gr. Techne - art, craftsmanship, craft) - a large-scale accident with dire consequences caused by a malfunction, breakdown, destruction of technical systems, machines, structures, mechanisms or disruption of technological processes most characteristic of the era of highly developed industrial production.
Technogenic civilization - a common, but not entirely correct concept, which denotes a social state, a type of social development characterized by the dominance of technology and modern technologies in various areas of social life.
Techno-optimism - a world outlook and life position, in accordance with which technical achievements and scientific and technological progress as a whole are given primary importance in overcoming the problems and contradictions that arise in the course of progressive social development. From this point of view, technical means of production (machines, mechanisms, computers, innovative technologies, etc.), as well as scientific and technical knowledge, are a decisive factor that determines various aspects of social life, the nature and direction of social development.
Technopessimism - a worldview position, a system of views according to which scientific and technological progress and its achievements are considered as the main cause of the imbalance in relations between society and nature, the emergence and sharp aggravation of environmental, resource, social and many other problems of modern social development.
Technosphere - the area of distribution of equipment, technical structures, devices, technologies, etc .; a set of machines and mechanisms, engineering objects and structures, computing equipment and devices designed to increase the capabilities and abilities of a person to exert an impact on the environment, objects and objects of the material world.
Triosphere (geobiosociosphere) - the area of manifestation and interaction of the main and derivative components of a conglomerate, consisting of a geographical, biological and social environment; the scope, distribution of the geobiosocial system.
Philosophy - a historical form of social consciousness, a special type of worldview formed on the basis of a personal, predominantly rational, critically comprehended comprehension of objective and subjective reality.
Fundamental globalization - such a stage in the process of establishing universal ties, when the world in the most important parameters (geographical, economic, political) is finally formed as a single whole, i.e. becomes a mature system, and humanity in the full sense of the word global. In other words, this is such a stage in the development of globalization, when the human world becomes a single organism, a subject of action, capable of interacting with the biosphere and geographical environment as a “geological force”.
Futurology - a set of ideas and theories aimed at understanding and predicting the future.
The Cold War - a political confrontation between the capitalist and socialist systems in the second half of the twentieth century.
Civilization - referring to civilization or to the understanding of social processes, viewed from the perspective of the manifestation in them of the main signs and principles of civilization.
Civilization (lat. Civilis - civil, city, state) - a historically defined step in the development of society, the beginning of which (as well as subsequent development) is characterized by the division of labor and the emergence of classes, the state, as well as the urbanization of public life and the level of development of the technosphere; a category that allows us to consider society from the point of view of the structure and level of development of its statehood, economic and socio-political structure, the nature of internal and external relations of the social organism. It acts as a phenomenon as a form, an external frame of culture.
Civilistics - a section of scientific knowledge that studies the problems of civilization and civilizational development of society; the totality of theories, principles and methods that make up the corresponding section of scientific knowledge.
A particular (local) problem - difficulties or tasks that, as a rule, relate to certain areas of the state, large settlements, organizations, enterprises, etc. Private problems are not significant or typical for a particular society, or large territories.
Evolutionism (lat. Evolutio - deployment) - a smooth, gradual transition from one state to another; such transformations of natural and social objects, structures, processes, phenomena, when they undergo directed and irreversible changes in their qualitative and quantitative characteristics.
Ecopessimism - a worldview position according to which the ecological state of the planet is perceived as doomed to degradation.
Epogenesis - the process of nucleation, formation and subsequent development of successive eras. In global studies, epogenesis is characterized by a transition from one era to another, as a result of which there is an expansion of the scale and territorial limits within which the events that occur maintain their integrity, ultimately reveal a general tendency and a certain logic of development.
Epometamorphosis - an epoch-making change, a transition to another stage of the development of the geobiosocial system, accompanied by fundamental changes in this system at the level of form and content, essence and phenomenon. A category for describing macrohistorical and macrosocial transformations that determine the change of historical eras, i.e. which are the reason for the transition from one era of the formation of global ties to another.
The epoch - a significant period of time in the development of nature, society, science, etc., having its own specificity and characteristic features.
Stage - a time interval, a length of time at a certain distance.
Nuclear winter - a possible situation of a sharp cooling on the planet in the event of an exchange of nuclear strikes, as a result of which the atmosphere will be closed for a long time to the passage of sunlight.